In this course, we compare how political institutions shape politics and policy-outcomes. In the first part of the course, we review spatial models before investigating approaches for identifying spatial positions of political actors and policies. In second part of the course, we apply these models and measurements to analyze government formation and duration; executive -legislative relations; and legislative coalition formation and organization. Empirically, the course will draw on insights from a range of political systems, including, but not limited to, the EU, US and national European nation-states. Students are expected to familiarize themselves with existing datasets and be able to rely on these for the assignments.